UV-C is one of the three ranges in the UV light spectrum, which is invisible to the human eyes. Other being UV-A and UV-B of wavelength ranges(280nm-400nm)Our sun emits UV rays a lot of its absorbed by the earth’s atmosphere.
UV-C light has wavelengths between 200nm and 280nm. Its germicidal properties are capable of inactivating a wide range of microorganisms, including viruses and protozoans, which is one of the main reasons for its widespread adoption in industries in need of
chemical-free, environment-friendly, profoundly efficient way of disinfection.
They are used primarily in medical sanitation and sterile work facilities. It is increasingly employed to sterilize drinking and wastewater since the holding facilities are enclosed and can be circulated to ensure a high exposure to UV.UV light is heavily used in industries for water disinfection as it provides a fast and efficient inactivation of microorganisms because of its physical germicidal process. When pathogens are exposure to the UV-C light, they are rendered incapable of reproduction and hence lose its infection power.
The function of UV rays disinfection is because of its wavelength. The cellular DNA heavily absorbs the high energy EM waves at 254nm. This absorbed energy leads to the formation of new bonds between adjacent nucleotides breaking the code and creating double bonds or dimers within themselves. The dimerization of thymine is the most common photochemical damage in microorganisms. Forming more thymine dimers than can be fixed leads to DNA scrambling of bacterias and viruses, preventing them from performing essential cellular functions, including replication disinfecting them.
UV-C sterilization has demonstrated efficiency against various pathogenic organisms, including those responsible for cholera, polio, typhoid, and other bacteria, viral or parasitic diseases. UV-C light is also capable of destroying chemical contaminants such as pesticides, industrial solvents, and various pharmaceuticals by-products through a process known as UV oxidation.
The presence of particles or obstacles to UV light can protect the microorganisms and help them withstand UV exposure. UV systems should be designed so that enough UV dosage is given to the organisms to ensure the cellular damage cannot be repaired. Field testing should be done to ensure proper disinfection.